Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a heterogeneous condition of the lungs and body. Techniques in chest imaging and quantitative image analysis provide novel in vivo insight into the disease and potentially examine divergent responses to therapy. This article reviews the strengths and limitations of the leading imaging techniques: computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and optical coherence tomography. Following an explanation of the technique, each section details some of the useful information obtained with these examinations. Future clinical care and investigation will likely include some combination of these imaging modalities and more standard assessments of disease severity.